Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps in controlling blood sugar levels. However, it is used together with exercise and diet to control the development of type 2 diabetes and in the treatment of diabetes 2. They exist in two types: slow-release tablets and standard release tablets. Slow-release tablets dissolve slowly hence not taken often, while standard release tablets release metformin quickly into the body.
Uses of metformin
Metformin is highly effective in diabetic two treatment. Furthermore, it is also used in enhancing a longer life span, preventing colon cancer, improving female fertility, among others. However, the use of metformin might cause side effects such as stomach upset, metallic taste in the mouth, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea. Below are the discussed uses of metformin.
1. Protects the heart
Imbalance in blood sugar increases risk factors that cause heart disease. Metformin enhances blood uptake into the muscles by decreasing insulin resistance. It is also essential in the reduction of blood sugar levels. In addition, metformin lowers overall damage to the heart, and it is also essential in lowering oxidative stress. However, it is effective in decreasing irregular heartbeat. Metformin reduces blood insulin levels and waist circumference, which are risk factors for heart diseases.
2. Treat diabetes
It helps prevents the development of diabetes two, and it is also essential in its treatment. Type 2 diabetes is caused when the body is not able to produce enough insulin. Metformin improves the way insulin is handled in the body; this, in turn, lowers blood sugar levels. However, controlled high blood sugar levels help prevent blindness, kidney damage, loss of limbs, and nerve problems. Additionally, it decreases the amount of sugar the intestines absorb and the amount the liver produces.
3. Insulin resistance
Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in cells. This helps decrease the effects of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Moreover, metformin reduces the risk of abnormally high insulin levels in the blood of lipodystrophy patients.
Metformin prevents patients with type 2 diabetes from the spread and growth of certain cancers. Diabetic patients using metformin have a reduced risk of developing liver cancer, breast, pancreatic, lung, respiratory system, and colorectal cancers. Additionally, metformin is highly considered in stunting cancerous tumor growth. Pancreatic cancer patients treated with metformin tend to have a high rate of survival and a low risk of death. Furthermore, a combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and metformin enables treatment for breast cancer due to its resistance to chemotherapy.
5. Improved male fertility
Metformin improves reproductive function in males with diabetes. Sperm motility improvement is enabled by the use of metformin. However, sperms incubated with metformin increase the ability to fertilize eggs after freezing during sperm donation. Metformin is also essential in improving erectile dysfunction.
Metformin is used in acute treatment where cerebral activation is enhanced. It also helps in preventing detrimental effects resulting from acute treatment. However, it is also essential in chronic treatment, which reduces stroke activation. Chronic pretreatment of metformin reduces ischemic neuronal damage. Additionally, metformin post-stroke treatment provides long-term functional recovery and infarction acute reduction.
7. Longer life span
Metformin is essential in prolonging lifespan without reducing body weight. However, it increases lifespan through the remodeling of energy. It also increases the levels of antioxidant glutathione and stress resistance while reducing energy output. Furthermore, Oxidative stress is reduced by the use of metformin, which results in an increased life span. It also enhances the change in the biology of aging tissue to a younger profile.
8. Weight loss
Metformin, along with a special diet, helped in the weight loss of women with high insulin relative to their blood sugar levels and weight gain. However, metformin decreased the body’s mass index and waist circumference in patients with an abnormal fat distribution.
9. Neurodegenerative conditions
Metformin use in diabetic patients enhances better cognitive function. However, it is essential in treating beta-secretase protein expression and activities in cell culture models. It also decreases acetylcholinesterase, which is essential in acetylcholine degradation responsible for a neurotransmitter in the memory and learning process.
10. Gestational diabetes
Women treated with metformin experience fewer incidences of neonatal jaundice, prematurity, and admission to the neonatal unit, with an overall improvement in neonatal morbidity. It also prevents maternal weight gain. Additionally, the use of metformin help decreases hepatic glucose output. Metformin is a good hypoglycemic agent in pregnancy, with a significant increase in macrosomia and large gestational age births. Furthermore, it leads to a reduction of the inflammatory response, which contributes to lowering preterm birth rates. It passes across the placenta freely, which is important as it assesses the potential effects of metformin treatment on the growth of the fetus.
11. Liver functioning
The liver plays a role in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in our bodies. Metformin decreases the risk of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, metformin reduces hepatocellular carcinoma occurrences, hence improving survival by influencing cell growth and angiogenesis. In addition, metformin is essential in causing histological response and reducing fatty liver diseases.
12. Polycystic ovary syndrome
Metformin reduces the circulation of androgen levels and improves menstrual regularity. In addition, it is important as it leads to an ovarian stimulation regime in vitro fertilization, which improves the pregnancy outcome. It is also essential in reducing the risk of miscarriage and restoring ovulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients experience resistance to insulin. However, the use of metformin treats insulin resistance, which helps in regulating reproduction hormones. Furthermore, metformin is considered in reducing the risk of conducting ovarian hyperstimulation in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.
13. Renal impairment
Metformin increases lactate levels by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which reduces the flow. However, it accumulates in the circulatory system of impaired kidney functioning patients, hence reducing the risk of lactic acidosis and cardiovascular disease.
Metformin help in the reduction of birth defect risks in diabetic patients. However, metformin helps improve the rate of ovulation, leading to increased chances of getting pregnant. Polycystic ovary syndrome causes small cysts to grow in the ovaries and irregular periods hence resulting in difficulties in getting pregnant. It also helps in losing weight gained because of polycystic ovary syndrome.
15. Lowering cholesterol
Metformin is responsible for lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the body. Higher doses of metformin led to a reduction in the total and levels of lipoprotein density cholesterol.